With our knowledge and expertise we can offer advice and services across a number of legal practice areas. Use the A-Z directory below for practice related information and the latest news on our policy, plus details of services we offer to support high standards of professional competence.

Advertising & Marketing
This area of law covers work on behalf of advertising and marketing agencies and brand-holders that often conduct their own marketing and advertising campaigns. It includes both commercial and regulatory work.

Administrative and Public Law
This section covers judicial reviews, statutory appeals, inquiries, disciplinary proceedings and non-contentious advice on the powers and administrative functions of central and local government and other public and regulatory bodies. It also includes matters relating to competitive tendering, public procurement, environmental issues and employment and discrimination law.

Arbitration
This section features advice on the resolution of disputes by one or more neutral parties, either an arbitrator or an arbitration panel. Many contracts require mandatory arbitration in the event of a dispute. Examples of the institutions include AAA (American Arbitration Association), ICC (International Chamber of Commerce), ICSID (International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes) and LCIA (London Court of International Arbitration).

Aviation / Aerospace
Aviation includes both finance, regulatory and litigation matters. Aviation Finance concentrates on the advice to manufacturers, purchasers and investors (such as hedge and private equity funds) on the sale, leasing and acquisition of portfolios of aircraft.

Banking & Finance
A broad-based definition of banking transactions, which include advice to both borrower and lender clients. The following topics are included:
Acquisition finance: transactions involving arranging finance for acquisitions acting for either the lender or the borrower.
Islamic Finance: Sharia-compliant work such as acquisitions, forming funds to invest in real estate and commercial properties, issuing of Sukuks.
General bank lending: syndicated lending, structured finance, leveraged finance.
Project finance: financing of infrastructure and industrial projects. Often arranged on a non-recourse loan basis. See also equipment finance and leasing.
Refinancing: The refinancing and restructuring of existing loans and debtor in possession financing is also included.

Bankruptcy
The focus is on corporate bankruptcy and restructuring and the legal processes related to distressed businesses, which can either be reorganised or go into liquidation. Lawyers assist clients such as corporate debtors, investors and asset purchasers, secured and unsecured creditors and creditors` committees, bondholders, insurers, directors of distressed companies and any other interested parties in corporate restructurings, bankruptcy proceedings.

Charities
This section covers all types of work conducted for third sector clients, including both contentious and non-contentious work. This includes work ranging from sector-specific advice on constitutional and governance issues or public benefit requirements, to more general advice on corporate, property, employment and tax issues.

Climate Change
Lawyers in this practice area advise clients on a range of compliance, regulatory, transactional and contentious matters as they relate to climate change. The section also covers the legal issues relating to renewable and low carbon projects, which includes assisting with the development and financial issues attached to these ventures. In addition, they can advice clients on the risks and investment opportunities concerning climate change in corporate transactions, key issues of which include energy efficiency, supply chain issues, climate change adaptation and mitigation, due diligence and risk assessment.

Clinical Negligence
Lawyers in this practice area handle allegations of negligent acts committed by professionals working in the healthcare or pharmaceutical sectors. These cases usually arise from accusations that the defendants did not follow accepted industry practices, leading to injury or death to the patient or claimant. The section is divided between those who represent the defendants or their employers and those who bring claims on behalf of individuals seeking compensation for their injuries.

Commodities
Lawyers in this section focus their efforts on advising on the regulation and trade of commodities, and any related litigation. Practitioners deliver advice on a range of both soft and hard commodities from cash crops to coal, oil and gas, metals and carbon credits. Typical clients include commodities trading houses, export credit agencies, financial institutions, freighters and insurers.

Construction
Construction covers contractual advisor work within the construction industry for both the suppliers (eg developers, contractors, engineers and architects), and those clients employing these types of companies eg corporates or state authorities on their building plans.

Consumer Finance
The firms ranked in this section may handle regulatory, transactional or litigious matters. Typical work includes advising on the Consumer Credit Directive, credit cards, business loans, unsecured and secured personal loans, point of sale finance, e-money products, auto loans, current and savings accounts, and mortgages.

Commercial
Lawyers in this sector offer legal and commercial counselling services to local and international firms, institutions and investors. Besides that, foundation procedures of local and foreign companies as well as of distributorships, liaison offices and agencies are followed up. Legal counselling services are provided in connection with the foundation and operation of firms and other legal entities. The legislation on company law including taxation, free zones and the capital market is followed-up in order to offer comprehensive and solution-oriented counselling services that support the local and international decisions of the clients.

Competition
A great deal of research notes and annotations are prepared on the direct or indirect preventive transactions of companies in related markets including the limit between competitive price levels, horizontal and vertical agreements, cooperation and cartelization. Lawyers practising in this sector offer counselling services in the field of adjustment programs and privatization in connection not only with privatization law but also competition law from a wide legal perspective.

Corporate/M&A
This broad category covers both public company and private equity (including venture capital) matters. The chapter includes company acquisitions, dispositions and related financing arrangements, capitalisations, entity selection and formation, operating and partnership agreements, securities and governance matters. Also covers those transactions designed to help restructuring within companies and their subsidiaries by change of ownership.

Civil Liberties & Human Rights
The section covers violations of rights under the Human Rights Act 1998 and the European Convention on Human Rights by the government, media and organisations, in the way they behave towards individuals. It features cases involving judicial review proceedings and also cases brought before the European Court of Human Rights.

Crime
Lawyers in this practice advise and appear in court on behalf of both accused persons and the prosecution, handling the full spectrum of offences, from minor motoring misdemeanours to more serious crimes, including grievous bodily harm, rape and murder. They cover work at all levels, from initial police dealings and high street advisory matters all the way to the Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights.

Consumer Law
The increasing needs of society and a great deal of consumer goods’ becoming a significant part of daily life have rendered both the consumer law and the consumer rights important issues. Lawyers in this practice handle legal remedies, applications and the procedures relating to resolution of consumer-related problems.

Defamation / Reputation Management
Firms and lawyers listed in this section handle libel and defamation proceedings on behalf of both claimants and defendants, as well as providing risk-management advice to avoid litigation. Reputation management involves advising individuals and corporations on the legal aspects of protecting and regulating their reputation.

Education
Education: Individuals covers lawyers and law firms who act on behalf of pupils and their parents in matters such as special educational needs (SEN), admissions and exclusions, disability discrimination claims, judicial review cases, disputes with private schools, and transport to school issues. The firms ranked here may undertake either privately or publicly funded work.

Education: Institutions (Schools) concerns work on behalf of schools. This is a wide-ranging chapter covering the gamut of school-related law, including pupil-related litigation and child protection issues, debt recovery, governance matters, school reorganisations, employment law, exclusions, policy and procedure reviews, and the establishment of academies.

Education: Institutions (Higher & Further Education). Lawyers handle constitutional and governance issues, employment matters, joint ventures between institutions, IP student-related issues and litigation, data protection, governance, and charity law.

Employee Share Schemes
The focus is on employee benefits, including share incentive plans (SIPs) and employee management incentives (EMIs) and tax efficient structuring of payment schemes. It also includes advice on disputes following the implementation of share schemes.

Employment
Covers both contentious and non-contentious employment matters relating to day-to-day business issues as well as mergers and takeovers. Includes employment litigation related to sex, race, age discrimination. In the USA, this also includes class action suits, and the avoidance of class action certification. Includes workforce redundancies and employment issues related to the merger of two companies. Lawyers also advise on the writing of policy handbooks, HR training and corporate governance for major corporates.

Energy
This practice area focuses on corporate / commercial, regulatory and capital markets issues arising from the energy sector. These include the regulatory components of M&A and other transactional work, pure regulatory work related to the application for licenses and compliance and enforcement with regulatory bodies. In the USA, these include FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) and CFTC (Commodity Futures Trading Commission). Chambers focuses on key industry sectors including Electricity; Oil & Gas; Renewables and Nuclear matters.

Environment
This area of law covers both litigation and advisory / transactional support to clients. This includes general corporate issues, (eg due diligence on mergers), the development of brownfield sites, and pollution issues. `Traditional` environment work includes regulatory compliance, litigation and enforcement actions related to air, water, wetlands, waste and endangered species.

Family / Matrimonial
This section deals with issues surrounding the inception and breakdown of personal relationships. This includes the creation of pre-nuptial/civil partnership / co-habitation agreements relating to financial and property assets, the resolution of divorces or separations involving financial and property disputes, and the handling of matters relating to children in the context of divorce or separation.

Financial Services Regulation
This section covers both non-contentious and contentious matters arising out of the Financial Services industry and advice on all aspects of internal organization and governance, transactions and operations.

Non-contentious matters include assistance to banks / financial institutions clients in complying with the full range of financial services laws and regulations in their daily operations.

Contentious matters cover advice related to the defence of financial institutions in criminal and civil examinations, inspections, investigations, and formal proceedings by the SEC and other federal and state financial regulators and self-regulatory organisations.

Franchising
This section includes those acting for Franchisees and Franchisors and covers both transactional and contentious work. On the non-contentious side, this includes setting up a franchise arrangement, expanding a system and closing down arrangements. Disputes arising from the sector such as disputed closing down of a system or contractual obligations.

Fraud
This covers non-violent wrongdoing in areas including money laundering, share ramping and a range of contractual fraud issues. The practice area is further split into civil and criminal branches, covering the full range of proceedings.

Health & Safety
This section incorporates both contentious and non-contentious health & safety issues. In the UK, this includes the defence of companies and senior executives facing investigations or actions initiated by the Health and Safety Executive and other regulatory bodies including criminal breaches of the law such as corporate manslaughter. Public inquest work is also included. On the non-contentious side the section covers regulatory compliance advice, risk management and training. The health & safety issues which fall under the remit of this section are very broad from general health and safety at work to food safety, fire safety and issues affecting the waste, utilities, nuclear, rail and other industries.

Healthcare
Healthcare law covers all transactional, litigious and regulatory concerns faced by hospitals, public and private sector providers, medical institutions and healthcare professionals. By its nature it is extremely wide-ranging, often leading lawyers to consolidate expertise in specialist areas such as procurement, commissioning, healthcare technology or financing work.

Immigration
Law firms featured in this section provide advice on all aspects of inbound and outbound immigration, such as work permits and visas, workforce mobility and other legislative and regulatory changes. The UK section also features Personal Immigration, which includes student, asylum / refugee and publicly funded immigration issues.

Information Technology
Information Technology focuses on the start-up, development and finance of technology-based businesses, advising start-up or later stage enterprises, venture capital investors, and other financial investors. Issues include private and public capital raisings, joint venture agreements, share listings, corporate governance and M&A.

Insolvency/Corporate Recovery
The focus is on corporate bankruptcy and restructuring and the legal processes related to distressed businesses, which can either be reorganised or go into liquidation. Lawyers assist clients, such as corporate debtors, investors and asset purchasers, secured and unsecured creditors and creditors` committees, bondholders, insurers, directors of distressed companies and any other interested parties in corporate restructurings, bankruptcy proceedings.

Insurance
Insurance includes both contentious and non-contentious insurance and reinsurance matters. On the contentious side, lawyers handlecoverage claims litigation, broker`s negligence and both `facultative` and `treaty` reinsurance disputes. On the non-contentious side, lawyers handle all forms of M&A, capital raisings, demutualisations and other regulatory issues.

Intellectual Property
Intellectual Property covers disputes related to patent, copyright and trademark infringement. Litigation concerning trade secrets also features. Lawyers also handle related issues such as licensing and IP commercialisation (US patent prosecution).

International Trade
This section covers classic trade cases such as anti-dumping, countervailing duties, export control and other customs / tariff classifications and regulatory work. Lawyers also advise on matters relating to NAFTA, WTO and GATT trade provisions and the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), an areas that overlap to some extent with the white-collar crime field.

Islamic Finance
Sharia-compliant work, including lending, sukuk, fund formation, acquisitions and joint ventures.

IT &Outsourcing
The IT industry crosses a range of business sectors, whether it involves global communications networks of large multinationals, or internal data storage systems of small owner-managed businesses.

Leisure & Hospitality
This is an industry section covering all strands of legal services carried out for clients involved in the leisure industry, ranging from hotels and amusement parks to casinos. The key strands of legal advice related to real estate, employment and OSHA, corporate / commercial matters and financing.

Leisure & Hospitality
This is an industry section covering all strands of legal services carried out for clients involved in the leisure industry, ranging from hotels and amusement parks to casinos. The key strands of legal advice related to real estate, employment and OSHA, corporate / commercial matters and financing.

Licensing
This section deals with the award of and challenges to liquor and gambling licences. The UK section separately identifies both Liquor and Gambling to highlight individual lawyers’ expertise.

Life Sciences
Life Sciences focuses on the commercialisation of life sciences products (pharmaceuticals, medical devices and biotechnology programs etc). IP issues dominate as large pharmaceuticals seek to obtain innovative, impending blockbuster drugs from biotechs and other pharmaceutical companies. It also includes the licensing and acquisition of new products from other sources (often smaller biotechs to larger suppliers).

Local Government
This section focuses on the whole spectrum of local government activities, including planning, environmental, education, community care, highways, housing, health, compulsory purchase, public procurement, freedom of information, rating, licensing and elections.

Media & Broadcasting
The media market includes Advertising, Firm & Television; Music, Publishing and Theatre. Litigation includes: Copyright and contractual disputes (either representing studios, producers or talent); First Amendment litigation in the US; IP and trademark disputes; antitrust; and matters arising from film finance.

Mediation
Mediation is a process where the disputes between two parties that have been or may be referred to a court are settled by way of mutual negotiations through a mediator. The mediators employ some systematic methods to facilitate the communication for keeping the parties around the table.

Natural Resources
The Natural Resources section focuses on mining and minerals exploration, development and production agreements, including royalty issues, project finance, taxation and other financing arrangements. Engineering, processing and refining contracts, sales structures and environmental issues are also covered.

Outsourcing
Outsourcing covers legal aspects of the transfer of business administration and services to external providers, both domestically and internationally. The section includes every variation of this process, including IT outsourcing, business process outsourcing, and legal process outsourcing.

Parliamentary & Public Affairs
This UK section has three tables: Electoral Law, Parliamentary Agency and Public Affairs. It encompasses advice on political process, planning, authorisation, procurement, construction and delivery of major infrastructure and other projects. It also covers those involved in campaigning and lobbying and media relations advice. Electoral law includes advice on both local and parliamentary elections, rules relating to the conduct of Members of Parliament, contributing to consultations and legislative reform of electoral law.

Partnership
This section deals with contentious and non-contentious partnership matters, primarily concerning professional clients such as architects, surveyors, accountants, lawyers, doctors and investment funds. This area includes work on corporate restructurings in which firms and companies convert to more sophisticated partnership structures, particularly LLPs. Firms that specialise in partnership law also counsel clients in establishing offices overseas, mergers and acquisitions, partner and team moves, discrimination, and regulatory matters. Non-contentious work includes drafting of partnership agreements and crafting innovative partnership vehicles for corporate clients.

Personal Injury
This section covers the full scope of litigation arising from injuries sustained outside of a clinical context. This includes litigation arising from workplace accidents, motor accidents, abuse claims and industrial disease.

Police Law
Mainly Claimant: This covers the full range of actions and judicial reviews against the police, the IPCC and coroners’ decisions including unlawful arrests, assault, false imprisonment, malicious prosecution, shootings, death in custody and inquests.

Mainly Defendant: This section focuses on lawyers and law firms who defend police forces against matters of the type listed above.

Private Client / Wealth Management
This section ranks firms and lawyers who advise individuals and trustees on contentious and non-contentious aspects of asset management, including wills and probate, tax and trusts.

Products Liability
This chapter encompasses legal claims that allow an injured party to recover financial compensation from the manufacturer or seller of a product. This can include faulty brakes, contaminated food and medicine lacking appropriate label warnings. Law firms advise manufacturers, distributors, suppliers retailers and others who make the product available to the public. It also covers toxic tort, relating to the exposure to chemicals, pharmaceutical drugs or occupational hazards.

Professional Discipline
This section covers those lawyers who advise on procedures for dealing with allegations of improper conduct or fitness-to-practice investigations. This may include either counseling on a specific case or testing whether established and proposed new disciplinary codes are adequately robust.

Professional Negligence
This section covers law firms, solicitors or barristers that specialise in disputes arising over loss suffered as a result of negligent advice given by professionals. A wide range of professionals are covered, including architects, surveyors, financial professionals, insurance brokers and solicitors or barristers.

Projects
This area of law focuses on the development, financing (limited and non-recourse), refinancing and acquisition / divestitures of large projects that arise from the capital intensive infrastructure and energy markets.

Real Estate
Corporate matters related to real estate include M&A of large real estate holding companies, complex fund and REIT transactions, private equity and public securities. The real estate lawyers are distinct from pure corporate lawyers in that they typically come from a real estate background, have an understanding of the underlying asset and do aspects of `dirt law` real estate for their clients.

Real Estate Investement Trust (REITs)
This chapter features structuring and transactional advice related to specialist real estate investment trusts. Includes: IPOs, going private transactions, joint ventures, M&As, REIT formation and investment work, restructurings, REIT tax issues, litigation, 144As that involve REITs, financings, Special Committee representations and UPREIT and DOWNREIT structure implementation.

Retail
Retail is an industry table covering law firms who have developed a track record in serving the needs of large, national retailers. Naturally, real estate, planning and land use matters will feature prominently, but the firm must also advise on franchise, IP, trademark and e-commerce matters.

Shipping
Shipping & maritime litigation involves breach of charter-party disputes, cargo and bills of lading claims, the arrest of vessels and cargoes, marine insurance claims, collision, salvage and environmental liabilities. On the non-contentious side, law firms advise on contractual arrangements for construction, financing and registration of vessels, customs and licensing, and documentation relating to charter-parties and bills of lading.

Social Housing
These lawyers act for either the providers or consumers of social housing. This can comprise corporate work, such as governance and joint ventures – housing stock transfers, antisocial behaviour matters, construction or redevelopment financing, property issues, or defending social housing tenants against legal proceedings brought by the providers.

Sports
Sports law brings together many different areas of law, including commercial law, contract law, employment law, intellectual property law, immigration and the law of ‘tort’ (or civil wrong). It covers amateur, professional, domestic and international sporting activities and events.

Tax
Tax covers a broad range of matters on both the contentious and non-contentious side. Non-contentious matters include M&A transactions and equity raising issues both at domestically and abroad, as well as tax advisory work on behalf of corporate clients. On the contentious side, disputes with public authorities in the form of litigation, appeals and tribunals are included.

Technology & Communications
Technology focuses on contractual agreements in the technology field, often outsourcing contracts between large corporates and suppliers of IT services. Law firms often work with investors or start-up enterprises on a range of business issues including employment law, strategic alliances and joint ventures, stock exchange listings, mergers, acquisitions and corporate governance issues.

Telecommunications
The telecom section concentrates on a range of legal issues arising from the heavily regulated areas of telecommunications and broadcasting. Work includes transactional and litigation advice to telecoms companies, wireless operators, TV and / or radio broadcasters and the regulatory issues that such companies face.

Travel
The travel industry encompasses legal advice on a broad array of market pressures including regulatory compliance on consumer safety, foreign personal injury litigation, and environmental concerns.

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